Kings to Desolations

This is a detailed timeline study from the first king of Israel until the captivity to Babylon.

And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, which [is] the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD (1Kgs 6:1).

The 4th year of Solomon’s reign is 480th year after the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt. King Saul began to rule Israel 75 years before Solomon began to build the house of the Lord after looking into the details. Hence, the beginning of kings began 405 years after the children of Israel came out of the land of Israel.

However, based on Septuagint, the verse gives a different value.

1Kgs 6:1 And it came to pass in the four hundred and fortieth year after the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the fourth year and second month of the reign of king Solomon over Israel, (6:17) that the king commanded that they should take great and costly stones for the foundation of the house, and hewn stones. (6:18) And the men of Solomon, and the men of Chiram hewed the stones, and laid them for a foundation. (6:1) In the fourth year he laid the foundation of the house of the Lord, in the month Ziu, even in the second month. (6:38) In the eleventh year, in the month Baal, this is the eighth month, the house was completed according to all its plan, and according to all its arrangement.

The 4th year of Solomon’s reign is 440th year after the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt. King Saul began to rule Israel 75 years before Solomon began to build the house of the Lord. Hence, the beginning of kings began 365 years after the children of Israel came out of the land of Israel.

Note: The blue text are from Septuagint (LXX). The red are corrections for scribal errors/typos and historical accounts. Northern kings of Israel are highlighted with red and southern kings of Judah are highlighted with blue.

Years Scripture Reference Notes
0 Saul

And when Samuel saw Saul, the LORD said unto him, Behold the man whom I spoke to you of! this same shall reign over my people. (1Sam 9:17)

1Sam 13:1 Saul was [thirty] years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel [forty-]two years.


Acts 13:21 Then the people asked for a king, and he gave them Saul son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled forty years.

King Saul begins to rule Israel. The Hebrew manuscripts says one year in 1 Sam 13:1 but Paul mentions as 40. LXX completely omits the verse. Based on Paul, Saul must be 40 years.
40 Ishbosheth

Ishbosheth, Saul’s son, [was] forty years old when he began to reign over Israel, and he reigned two years. Only the house of Judah followed David (2Sam 2:10).
Ishbosheth, Saul’s son reigned for 2 yrs.
42 David

David [was] thirty years old when he began to reign, [and] he reigned forty years. In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months, and in Jerusalem he reigned over all Israel and Judah thirty-three years (2Sam 5:4-5).
King David begins to reign all Israel for 33 years.
75 Solomon

1Kgs 1:34 “There let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him king over Israel; and blow the horn, and say, ‘Long live King Solomon!’

King Solomon begins to rule Israel (based on 1Kgs 6:1)
79

First Temple is built



And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, which [is] the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD (1Kgs 6:1).

1Kgs 6:1 And it came to pass in the four hundred and fortieth year after the departure of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the fourth year and second month of the reign of king Solomon over Israel, (6:17) that the king commanded that they should take great and costly stones for the foundation of the house, and hewn stones. (6:18) And the men of Solomon, and the men of Chiram hewed the stones, and laid them for a foundation. (6:1) In the fourth year he laid the foundation of the house of the Lord, in the month Ziu, even in the second month. (6:38) In the eleventh year, in the month Baal, this is the eighth month, the house was completed according to all its plan, and according to all its arrangement.

Solomon begins to build the house of Israel

480 yrs after children of Israel came out of the land of Egypt (or 440) as per LXX.

Fourth year of Solomon’s reign, 2nd month.

Temple Built.

115 1. Rehoboam & 1. Jeroboam

And the period that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel [was] forty years (1Kgs 11:42).

1Kgs 12:20 Now it came to pass when all Israel heard that Jeroboam had come back, they sent for him and called him to the congregation, and made him king over all Israel. There was none who followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only.

And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam [was] forty-one years old when he became king. He reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to put His name there. His mother’s name [was] Naamah, an Ammonitess (1Kgs 14:21).
King Solomon died

Kingdom Split:

Rehoboam was 41 when he became king of Judah
Jeroboam became king of Israel

133 2. Abijam

And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam [was] forty-one years old when he became king. He reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD had chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, to put His name there. His mother’s name [was] Naamah, an Ammonitess (1Kgs 14:21).

In the eighteenth year of King Jeroboam the son of Nebat, Abijam became king over Judah (1Kgs 15:1).
Abijam becomes King of Judah

18th Year of Jeroboam, King of Israel

135

(139)

3. Asa

He reigned three years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Maachah the granddaughter of Abishalom (1Kgs 15:2).

In the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Asa became king over Judah (1Kgs 15:9)


1Kgs 15:9-10 In the four and twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Asa begins to reign over Juda. And he reigned forty-one years in Jerusalem: and his mother’s name was Ana, daughter of Abessalom.

Asa becomes king of Judah

20th Year of Jeroboam, King of Israel

24th Year of Jeroboam, King of Israel as per LXX

137

(141)

2. Nadab

Now Nadab the son of Jeroboam became king over Israel in the second year of Asa king of Judah, and he reigned over Israel two years (1Kgs 15:25).
Nadab becomes king of Israel

2nd Year of Asa, King of Judah

138

(142)

3. Baasha

Baasha killed him in the third year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned in his place (1Kgs 15:28).

In the third year of Asa king of Judah, Baasha the son of Ahijah became king over all Israel in Tirzah, and [reigned] twenty-four years (1Kgs 15:33).
Baasha becomes king of Israel

3rd Year of Asa, King of Judah

161

(165)

4. Elah

In the twenty-sixth year of Asa king of Judah, Elah the son of Baasha became king over Israel, [and reigned] two years in Tirzah (1Kgs 16:8).
Elah becomes king of Israel

26th Year of Asa, King of Judah

LXX records only 2 years of reign but not when 

162

(166)

5. Zimri , 6. Tibni & 7. Omri
And Zimri went in and struck him and killed him in the twenty-seventh year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned in his place (1Kgs 16:10).

In the twenty-seventh year of Asa king of Judah, Zimri had reigned in Tirzah seven days. And the people [were] encamped against Gibbethon, which [belonged] to the Philistines. Now the people [who were] encamped heard it said, “Zimri has conspired and also has killed the king.” So all Israel made Omri, the commander of the army, king over Israel that day in the camp (1Kgs 16:15-16).

1Kgs 16:21-22 Then the people of Israel were divided into two parts: half of the people followed Tibni the son of Ginath, to make him king, and half followed Omri. But the people who followed Omri prevailed over the people who followed Tibni the son of Ginath. So Tibni died and Omri reigned.
Zimri becomes king of Israel

Tibni becomes king of Israel

Omri becomes king of Israel

27th Year of Asa, King of Judah

166

(170)

In the thirty-first year of Asa king of Judah, Omri became king over Israel, [and reigned] twelve years. Six years he reigned in Tirzah (1Kgs 16:23). Omri again becomes king of Israel after the death of Tibni

31st Year of Asa, King of Judah. 

173

(177)

8. Ahab

In the thirty-eighth year of Asa king of Judah, Ahab the son of Omri became king over Israel; and Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty-two years (1Kgs 16:29).

1Kgs 16:29 In the second year of Josaphat king of Juda, Achaab son of Ambri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty-two years.

1Kgs 16:29 In the second year of Josaphat thirty-eighth year of Asa king of Juda, Achaab son of Ambri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty-two years.
Ahab becomes king of Israel

38th Year of Asa, King of Judah as per Masoretic text.

Septuagint have a different information for the same verse which is in-correct. This we can confirm using other information within LXX itself.

(181) 4. Josaphat


1Kgs 16:28a … And in the eleventh year of Ambri fourth year of Achaab Josaphat the son of Asa reigns, being thirty-five years old in the beginning of his reign, and he reigned twenty-five years in Jerusalem: and his mother’s name was Gazuba, daughter of Seli.

1Kgs 22:41 And Josaphat the son of Asa reigned over Juda: in the fourth year of Achaab king of Israel began Josaphat to reign. Thirty and five years old was he when he began to reign, and he reigned twenty and five years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Azuba daughter of Salai.
Josaphat became king of Judah as per LXX.

1Kgs 22:41 says, it is the 4th year of Achaad while 1Kgs 16:28a 11th year of Ambri. Both are technically correct and gives the same 181. However, Ambri was already dead when Achaab became king and 11th year from Ambri who is dead is not the best thing to do. Hence, it is possible the later scribes may have changed it in the later part of the book of first Kings.

177

(181)
And he [Asa] reigned forty-one years in Jerusalem. His grandmother’s name [was] Maachah the granddaughter of Abishalom (1Kgs 15:10).

Jehoshaphat the son of Asa had become king over Judah in the fourth year of Ahab king of Israel. Jehoshaphat [was] thirty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Azubah the daughter of Shilhi (1Kgs 22:41-42).
Jehoshaphat becomes king of Judah

4th year of Ahab, king of Israel

    194

    (198)

    9. Ahaziah

    Ahaziah the son of Ahab became king over Israel in Samaria in the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years over Israel (1Kgs 22:51).
    Ahaziah becomes king of Israel

    17th year of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah

    195

    (199)

    10. Jehoram


    2Kgs 3:1 Now Jehoram the son of Ahab became king over Israel at Samaria in the eighteenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned twelve years.


    2Kgs 1:18a And the rest of the acts of Ochozias which he did, behold, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? (1:18A) and Joram son of Achaab reigns over Israel in Samaria twelve years beginning in the eighteenth year of Josaphat king of Juda:
    Jehoram (or Joram) son of Ahab becomes king of Israel
    200

    (204)

    5. Jehoram

    Now in the fifth year of Joram the son of Ahab, king of Israel, Jehoshaphat [having been] king of Judah, Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat began to reign as king of Judah. He was thirty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem (2Kgs 8:16-17).
    Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat becomes king of Judah when he was 32 years old.

    5th year of Joram, king of Israel

    207

    (211)

    6. Ahaziah & 11. Jehu

    In the twelfth year of Joram the son of Ahab, king of Israel, Ahaziah the son of Jehoram, king of Judah, began to reign. Ahaziah [was] twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Athaliah the granddaughter of Omri, king of Israel (2Kgs 8:25-26).

    In the eleventh year of Joram the son of Ahab, Ahaziah had become king over Judah (2Kgs 9:29).

    Ahaziah becomes king of Judah.
    He was 22 years old

    11th/12th year of Joram, king of Israel
    Jehu becomes king of Israel
    End of 12 year reign of Jeohram, king of Israel

    208

    (212)

    7. Athaliah
    2Kgs 11:1-3 When Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her son was dead, she arose and destroyed all the royal heirs. But Jehosheba, the daughter of King Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him away from among the king’s sons who were being murdered; and they hid him and his nurse in the bedroom, from Athaliah, so that he was not killed. So he was hidden with her in the house of the LORD for six years, while Athaliah reigned over the land.
    Athaliah becomes queen of Judah
    214

    (218)

    8. Jehoash

    In the seventh year of Jehu, Jehoash became king, and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Zibiah of Beersheba (2Kgs 12:1).
    Jehoash becomes king of Judah

    7th year of Jehu

    237

    (241)

    12. Jehoahaz


    In the twenty-third year of Joash the son of Ahaziah, king of Judah, Jehoahaz the son of Jehu became king over Israel in Samaria, [and reigned] seventeen years (2Kgs 13:1).
    Jehoahaz becomes king of Israel

    23rd year of Joash, king of Judah

    251

    (255)

    13. Jehoash

    In the thirty-seventh year of Joash king of Judah, Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz became king over Israel in Samaria, [and reigned] sixteen years (2Kgs 13:10).
    Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz became king over Israel

    37th year of Joash (Jehoash), king of Judah

    253

    (257)

    9. Amaziah


    In the second year of Joash the son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, became king (2Kgs 14:1).
    Amaziah the son of Joash becomes king of Judah

    2nd year of Joash (Jehoash) king of Israel

    268

    (272)

    14. Jeroboam

    In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, became king in Samaria, [and reigned] forty-one years (2Kgs 14:23).
    Jeroboam becomes king of Israel

    15th year of Amaziah, king of Judah

    295

    (299)

    10. Azariah

    In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Azariah the son of Amaziah, king of Judah, became king (2Kgs 15:1).
    Azariah becomes king of Judah

    27th year of Jeroboam, king of Israel

    333

    (337)

    15. Zechariah


    In the thirty-eighth year of Azariah king of Judah, Zechariah the son of Jeroboam reigned over Israel in Samaria six months (2Kgs 15:8).
    Zechariah becomes king of Israel

    38th year of Azariah, king of Judah

    334

    (338)

    16. Shallum & 17. Menahem

    Shallum the son of Jabesh became king in the thirty-ninth year of Uzziah king of Judah; and he reigned a full month in Samaria. For Menahem the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah, came to Samaria, and struck Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria and killed him; and he reigned in his place (2Kgs 15:13-14).

    In the thirty-ninth year of Azariah king of Judah, Menahem the son of Gadi became king over Israel, [and reigned] ten years in Samaria (2Kgs 15:17).
    Shallum becomes king of Israel
    Menahem becomes king of Israel

    39th year of Uzziah (Azariah), king of Judah

    345

    (349)

    18. Pekahiah

    In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah, Pekahiah the son of Menahem became king over Israel in Samaria, [and reigned] two years (2Kgs 15:23).
    Pekahiah becomes king of Israel

    50th year of Azariah, king of Judah

    347

    (351)

    19. Pekah

    In the fifty-second year of Azariah king of Judah, Pekah the son of Remaliah became king over Israel in Samaria, [and reigned] twenty years (2Kgs 15:27).
    Pekah becomes king of Israel

    52th year of Azariah, king of Judah

    349

    (353)

    11. Jotham

    In the second year of Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, Jotham the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, began to reign. He was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Jerusha the daughter of Zadok (2Kgs 15:32-33).
    Jotham becomes king of Judah
    2nd year of Pekah, king of Israel
    362

    (366)

    12. Ahaz
    In the seventeenth year of Pekah the son of Remaliah, Ahaz the son of Jotham, king of Judah, began to reign. Ahaz [was] twenty years old when he became king, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem; and he did not do [what was] right in the sight of the LORD his God, as his father David [had done.] (2Kgs 16:1-2)
    Ahaz becomes king of Judah

    17th year of Pekah, king of Israel

    374

    (378)

    20. Hoshea


    In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea the son of Elah became king of Israel in Samaria, [and he reigned] nine years (2Kgs 17:1).
    Hoshea becomes king of Israel

    12th year of Ahaz, king of Judah

    377

    (381)

    13. Hezekiah

    Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea the son of Elah, king of Israel, [that] Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, king of Judah, began to reign. He was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Abi the daughter of Zechariah (2Kgs 18:1-2)

    Hezekiah becomes king of Judah

    3rd year of Hoshea, king of Israel

    379

    (383)

    Now it came to pass in the fourth year of King Hezekiah, which [was] the seventh year of Hoshea the son of Elah, king of Israel, [that] Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria and besieged it (2Kgs 18:9). Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria and besieged it

    7th year of Hoshea, king of Israel
    4th year of Hezekiah, king of Judah

    383

    (387)

    Israel went to Captivity

    In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria and carried Israel away to Assyria, and placed them in Halah and by the Habor, the River of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes (2Kgs 17:6).

    And at the end of three years they took it. In the sixth year of Hezekiah, that [is,] the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was taken (2Kgs 18:10).

    Assyria took Samaria and carried Israel away

    6th year of Hezekiah, king of Judah
    9th year of Hoshea, king of Israel

    391

    (395)

    And in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them (2Kgs 18:13).

    And I will add to your days fifteen years. I will deliver you and this city from the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will defend this city for My own sake, and for the sake of My servant David. (2Kgs 20:6)
    Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them

    14th year of Hezekiah, king of Israel
    Beginning of 15 year extension

    406

    (410)

    14. Manasseh

    Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea the son of Elah, king of Israel, [that] Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, king of Judah, began to reign. He was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Abi the daughter of Zechariah (2Kgs 18:1-2)

    Manasseh [was] twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Hephzibah (2Kgs 21:1).
    End of the 15 year extension and end of Hezekiah’s reign

    Manasseh becomes king of Judah

    461

    (465)

    15. Amon

    Amon [was] twenty-two years old when he became king, and he reigned two years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah (2Kgs 21:19).
    Amon becomes king of Judah
    463

    (467)

    16. Josiah

    Josiah [was] eight years old when he became king, and he reigned thirty-one years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Jedidah the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath (2Kgs 22:1).
    Josiah becomes king of Judah
    494

    (498)

    17. Jehoahaz  & 18. Jehoiakim

    Jehoahaz [was] twenty-three years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah (2Kgs 23:31).

    Jehoiakim [was] twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name [was] Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah (2Kgs 23:36).
    Jehoahaz becomes king of Israel

    Jehoiakim (Eliakim) becomes king of Israel by Pharaoh Necho

    497

    (501)

    In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it (Dan 1:1).

    young men in whom [there was] no blemish, but good-looking, gifted in all wisdom, possessing knowledge and quick to understand, who [had] ability to serve in the king’s palace, and whom they might teach the language and literature of the Chaldeans (Dan 1:4).

    Now from among those of the sons of Judah were Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (Dan 1:6).
    Daniel captured to Babylon

    3rd year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah

    498

    (502)

    Jer 25:1,11 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the people of Judah, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah (which was the first year of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon), … And this whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. 4th year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah

    1st year of King Nebuchadnezzar

    505

    (509)

    19. Jehoiachin & 20. Zedekiah

    (2Kgs 23:36) Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah.

    (2Kgs 24:6) So Jehoiakim rested with his fathers. Then Jehoiachin his son reigned in his place.

    (2Kgs 24:8,15) Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. His mother’s name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. .. And he carried Jehoiachin captive to Babylon. The king’s mother, the king’s wives, his officers, and the mighty of the land he carried into captivity from Jerusalem to Babylon.

    (2Kgs 24:17-18) Then the king of Babylon made Mattaniah, Jehoiachin’s uncle, king in his place, and changed his name to Zedekiah. Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.

    (Jer 52:27b-28)  Thus Judah was carried away captive from its own land. These are the people whom Nebuchadnezzar carried away captive: in the seventh year, three thousand and twenty-three Jews

    Jehoiakim died after ruling 11 years.

    Jehoiachin becomes king but only for 3 months and taken captive to Babylon.

    Zedekiah becomes king.

    This is the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar.

    LXX does not have verses Jer 52:29-30.

    514

    (518)

    (Jer 52:4) Now it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came against Jerusalem and encamped against it; and they built a siege wall against it all around.


    Jer 52:4 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the ninth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon came, and all his host, against Jerusalem, and they made a rampart round it, and built a wall round about it with large stones.
    Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon came against Jerusalem in the 9th year of Zedekiah.

    Masoretic text says 10th month while LXX says 9th month.

    517

    (521)

     
    Judah went to Captivity, Temple Destroyed

    (Jer 52:5) So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah.

    (Jer 52:12-14) Now in the fifth month, on the tenth day of the month (which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon), Nebuzaradan, the captain of the guard, who served the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. He burned the house of the LORD and the king’s house; all the houses of Jerusalem, that is, all the houses of the great, he burned with fire. And all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down all the walls of Jerusalem all around.

    2Kgs 25:8 And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month (this is the nineteenth year of Nabuchodonosor king of Babylon), came Nabuzardan, captain of the guard, who stood before the king of Babylon, to Jerusalem.

    11th yeaar of  King Zedekiah

    19th year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign

    Temple destroyed.

    Beginning of the desolations of Jerusalem.

    19th year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign is missing from LXX in Jeremiah but available in 2Kgs 25:8