What are Jews required to follow?

As we saw earlier, gentiles where never given the law but they need to follow the new covenant what Jesus Christ taught (Deut 18:18-19) which is for all nations (Matt 28:18-20). The new covenant is cleaning the inside of our hearts to be righteous and holy (Mark 7:21-23), not commit any abominations which God expects from all nations either Jew or gentile (Lev 18:27) that is incest (Lev 18:6-17), marrying multiple sisters (Lev 18:18), having sex when wife is in customary impurity or mensuration (Lev 18:19), committing adultery (Lev 18:20), aborting or kill your own children (Lev 18:21), homosexuality (Lev 18:22), bestiality (Lev 18:23). Finally, gentiles must follow the laws given to Noah which is for all mankind that is not eat flesh with blood and not to murder (Gen 9:4-6).

studying-torah

After the new covenant has come, what about the old covenant for the Jews? It is still valid for the Jews? Are the Jews still required to follow the law?

Matt 5:17-18 “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.

Jesus Christ makes this statement stating that He came to fulfill and not destroy. Then He seems to be giving His commandments that actually changes what is in the Old Covenant which is forbidden (Deut 4:2) yet the law allows Jesus to do so (Deu 18:18-19). So, what does Jesus change? How does it affect the Old Covenant?

  • Christ is God in flesh (John 10:30)
  • Christ becomes the Temple (Matt 12:6; John 2:20-21)
  • Christ is our High Priest (Ps 110:4)
  • Christ is the King of the Jews (Mark 15:2)
  • Christ is the lamb of God (John 1:29)
  • Christ is the perfect sacrifice (Ezek 16:62-63)
  • Christ’s words supersedes the Torah (Deu 18:18-19)

The reference numbers for the list of 613 Mitzvots the used will be from Judaism 101 for quick reference and easy understanding. Ambiguous laws where Jesus is silent on the matter is considered as valid. Laws where Jesus fulfilled or taught differently are explained and made invalid.

Matt 22:37-40 Jesus said to him, “‘You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like it: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets.”

Matt 7:12 “Therefore, whatever you want men to do to you, do also to them, for this is the Law and the Prophets.

The list and the explanations are made with all good intentions to follow God and His Son Jesus Christ. However, I may have erred. To keep you from falling, make sure you listen to Jesus what He said about the law in the above passages.

God (1 – 10) ✔

Mark 12:29-30 Jesus answered him, “The first of all the commandments is: ‘Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD is one. And you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.’ This is the first commandment.

As Jesus, we need to love the Lord our God with all our heart, with all our soul, with all our mind, and with all our strength. Hence, all laws related to God is perfectly valid.

  1. To know that God exists (Ex. 20:2; Deut. 5:6)
  2. Not to entertain the idea that there is any god but the Eternal (Ex. 20:3)
  3. Not to blaspheme (Ex. 22:27; in Christian texts, Ex. 22:28), the penalty for which is death (Lev. 24:16)
  4. To hallow God’s name (Lev. 22:32)
  5. Not to profane God’s name (Lev . 22:32)
  6. To know that God is One, a complete Unity (Deut. 6:4)
  7. To love God (Deut. 6:5)
  8. To fear Him reverently (Deut. 6:13; 10:20)
  9. Not to put the word of God to the test (Deut. 6:16)
  10. To imitate His good and upright ways (Deut. 28:9)

Torah (11 – 16) ✔

Deut 18:18-19 ‘I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and will put My words in His mouth, and He shall speak to them all that I command Him. And it shall be that whoever will not hear My words, which He speaks in My name, I will require it of him.

Matt 5:18 “For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.

John 10:35 … and the Scripture cannot be broken

Christ’s words or His teachings supersede Torah, but the law in Torah will not pass away until the heaven and earth pass away and Scripture cannot be broken.

  1. To honor the old and the wise (Lev. 19:32)
  2. To learn Torah and to teach it (Deut. 6:7)
  3. To cleave to those who know Him (Deut. 10:20) (the Talmud states that cleaving to scholars is equivalent to cleaving to Him)
  4. Not to add to the commandments of the Torah, whether in the Written Law or in its interpretation received by tradition (Deut. 13:1)
  5. Not to take away from the commandments of the Torah (Deut. 13:1)
  6. That every person shall write a scroll of the Torah for himself (Deut. 31:19)

Signs and Symbols (17 – 21) ✔

Jesus did not nullify circumcision for the Jews. Nor did He taught or even hinted anything to His disciples to circumcise gentiles. New covenant is silent on the below laws. Hence, it is perfectly valid for a Jew and not applicable for gentiles.

  1. To circumcise the male offspring (Gen. 17:12; Lev. 12:3)
  2. To put tzitzit on the corners of clothing (Num. 15:38)
  3. To bind tefillin on the head (Deut. 6:8)
  4. To bind tefillin on the arm (Deut. 6:8)
  5. To affix the mezuzah to the doorposts and gates of your house (Deut. 6:9)

Prayer and Blessings (22 – 25) ✔

Matt 6:5-13 “And when you pray, you shall not be like the hypocrites. For they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Assuredly, I say to you, they have their reward. But you, when you pray, go into your room, and when you have shut your door, pray to your Father who is in the secret place; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. And when you pray, do not use vain repetitions as the heathen do. For they think that they will be heard for their many words. Therefore do not be like them. For your Father knows the things you have need of before you ask Him. In this manner, therefore, pray: Our Father in heaven, Hallowed be Your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done On earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, As we forgive our debtors. And do not lead us into temptation, But deliver us from the evil one. For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen.

Jesus taught us to how pray and how not to pray. What Jesus taught does not nullify any of the laws below for Jews. However, for gentiles who are not given the law, the teachings of Jesus according to the new covenant is actually a super-set of the below laws in several ways.

Deut 8:10-12 “When you have eaten and are full, then you shall bless the LORD your God for the good land which He has given you. Beware that you do not forget the LORD your God by not keeping His commandments, His judgments, and His statutes which I command you today, lest–when you have eaten and are full, and have built beautiful houses and dwell in them;

For example, in new covenant they will be thankful for the meal and will not forget the commandments of the Lord because new covenant is about laws of God written in the heart.

  1. To pray to God (Ex. 23:25; Deut. 6:13) (according to the Talmud, the word “serve” in these verses refers to prayer)
  2. To read the Shema in the morning and at night (Deut. 6:7)
  3. To recite grace after meals (Deut. 8:10)
  4. Not to lay down a stone for worship (Lev. 26:1)

Love and Brotherhood (26 – 39) ✔

Matt 22:39 “And the second is like it: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’

John 13:34 “A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another.

As Jesus instructed to love one another, all the below laws are perfectly valid.

  1. To love all human beings who are of the covenant (Lev. 19:18)
  2. Not to stand by idly when a human life is in danger (Lev. 19:16)
  3. Not to wrong any one in speech (Lev. 25:17)
  4. Not to carry tales (Lev. 19:16)
  5. Not to cherish hatred in one’s heart (Lev. 19:17)
  6. Not to take revenge (Lev. 19:18)
  7. Not to bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18)
  8. Not to put any Jew to shame (Lev. 19:17)
  9. Not to curse any other Israelite (Lev. 19:14) (by implication: if you may not curse those who cannot hear, you certainly may not curse those who can)
  10. Not to give occasion to the simple-minded to stumble on the road (Lev. 19:14) (this includes doing anything that will cause another to sin)
  11. To rebuke the sinner (Lev. 19:17)
  12. To relieve a neighbor of his burden and help to unload his beast (Ex. 23:5)
  13. To assist in replacing the load upon a neighbor’s beast (Deut. 22:4)
  14. Not to leave a beast, that has fallen down beneath its burden, unaided (Deut. 22:4)

The Poor and Unfortunate (40 – 52) ✔

Luke 6:36 “Therefore be merciful, just as your Father also is merciful.

Matt 25:37-40 “Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink? When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You? Or when did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?’ And the King will answer and say to them, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these My brethren, you did it to Me.’

Matt 12:7 “But if you had known what this means, ‘I desire mercy and not sacrifice,’ you would not have condemned the guiltless.

As Jesus instructed to be kind and merciful, all the below laws are perfectly valid.

  1. Not to afflict an orphan or a widow (Ex. 22:21)
  2. Not to reap the entire field (Lev. 19:9; Lev. 23:22)
  3. To leave the unreaped corner of the field or orchard for the poor (Lev. 19:9)
  4. Not to gather gleanings (the ears that have fallen to the ground while reaping) (Lev. 19:9)
  5. To leave the gleanings for the poor (Lev. 19:9)
  6. Not to gather ol’loth (the imperfect clusters) of the vineyard (Lev. 19:10)
  7. To leave ol’loth (the imperfect clusters) of the vineyard for the poor (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 24:21)
  8. Not to gather the peret (grapes) that have fallen to the ground (Lev. 19:10).
  9. To leave peret (the single grapes) of the vineyard for the poor (Lev. 19:10)
  10. Not to return to take a forgotten sheaf (Deut. 24:19) This applies to all fruit trees (Deut. 24:20)
  11. To leave the forgotten sheaves for the poor (Deut. 24:19-20)
  12. Not to refrain from maintaining a poor man and giving him what he needs (Deut. 15:7)
  13. To give charity according to one’s means (Deut. 15:11)

Treatment of Gentiles (53 – 58) ✔

Luke 10:30-37 Then Jesus answered and said: “A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, who stripped him of his clothing, wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead. Now by chance a certain priest came down that road. And when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. Likewise a Levite, when he arrived at the place, came and looked, and passed by on the other side. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. And when he saw him, he had compassion. So he went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine; and he set him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, gave them to the innkeeper, and said to him, ‘Take care of him; and whatever more you spend, when I come again, I will repay you.’ So which of these three do you think was neighbor to him who fell among the thieves?” And he said, “He who showed mercy on him.” Then Jesus said to him, “Go and do likewise.”

Matt 5:44 “But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you

As Jesus instructed to love even our enemies, all the below laws are perfectly valid. It is important to note that the love the stranger is about administrating justice and not having fellowship and intermarrying.

  1. To love the stranger (Deut. 10:19)
  2. Not to wrong the stranger in speech (Ex. 22:20)
  3. Not to wrong the stranger in buying or selling (Ex. 22:20)
  4. Not to intermarry with gentiles (Deut. 7:3)
  5. To exact the debt of an alien (Deut. 15:3)
  6. To lend to an alien at interest (Deut. 23:21)

Deut 7:3-4 “Nor shall you make marriages with them. You shall not give your daughter to their son, nor take their daughter for your son. For they will turn your sons away from following Me, to serve other gods; so the anger of the LORD will be aroused against you and destroy you suddenly.

If the Gentiles are idol worshipers, then it is understandable there cannot be any intermarriage. But what about Christian Gentiles who also believe in the Lord? Based on Mitzvot 56, the context of this law is to avoid Gentiles leading Jews to idolatry.

John 10:16 “And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be one flock and one shepherd.

As Jesus said, the Christians Gentiles and Jews who believe on the Lord will be as one flock some day with Him as one Shepherd. Hence, the law applies even to gentile Christians not to intermarry with non-Christian Gentiles. While, this does imply Christians Gentiles and Jews can intermarry, Christian gentiles are still gentiles according to the law. Nor they can inherit the land allocated to the children of Israel. Mitzvot 57 and 58 specifically applies in the land of Israel given specifically to the children of Israel. Hence, the law is valid.

Marriage and Family (59 – 76, 79 – 81) ✔

Matt 15:4-6 “For God commanded, saying, ‘Honor your father and your mother’; and, ‘He who curses father or mother, let him be put to death.’ But you say, ‘Whoever says to his father or mother, “Whatever profit you might have received from me is a gift to God”– ‘then he need not honor his father or mother.’ Thus you have made the commandment of God of no effect by your tradition.

Jesus reiterated some of the commandments of the law and does not nullify any of the laws except the laws related to divorce. Mitzvot 74 may require a priest and temple which may not be in the new covenant.

  1. To honor father and mother (Ex. 20:12)
  2. Not to smite a father or a mother (Ex. 21:15)
  3. Not to curse a father or mother (Ex. 21:17)
  4. To reverently fear father and mother (Lev. 19:3)
  5. To be fruitful and multiply (Gen. 1:28)
  6. That a eunuch shall not marry a daughter of Israel (Deut. 23:2)
  7. That a mamzer shall not marry the daughter of a Jew (Deut. 23:3)
  8. That an Ammonite or Moabite shall never marry the daughter of an Israelite (Deut. 23:4)
  9. Not to exclude a descendant of Esau from the community of Israel for three generations (Deut. 23:8-9)
  10. Not to exclude an Egyptian from the community of Israel for three generations (Deut. 23:8-9)
  11. That there shall be no harlot (in Israel); that is, that there shall be no intercourse with a woman, without previous marriage with a deed of marriage and formal declaration of marriage (Deut. 23:18)
  12. To take a wife by kiddushin, the sacrament of marriage (Deut. 24:1)
  13. That the newly married husband shall (be free) for one year to rejoice with his wife (Deut. 24:5)
  14. That a bridegroom shall be exempt for a whole year from taking part in any public labor, such as military service, guarding the wall and similar duties (Deut. 24:5)
  15. Not to withhold food, clothing or conjugal rights from a wife (Ex. 21:10)
  16. That the woman suspected of adultery shall be dealt with as prescribed in the Torah (Num. 5:30)
  17. That one who defames his wife’s honor (by falsely accusing her of unchastity before marriage) must live with her all his lifetime (Deut. 22:19)
  18. That a man may not divorce his wife concerning whom he has published an evil report (about her unchastity before marriage) (Deut. 22:19)
  19. That a widow whose husband died childless must not be married to anyone but her deceased husband’s brother (Deut. 25:5) (this is only in effect insofar as it requires the procedure of release below).
  20. To marry the widow of a brother who has died childless (Deut. 25:5) (this is only in effect insofar as it requires the procedure of release below )
  21. That the widow formally release the brother-in-law (if he refuses to marry her) (Deut. 25:7-9)

Divorce (77,78) ✘

Matt 5:31-32 “Furthermore it has been said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.’ But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife for any reason except sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery; and whoever marries a woman who is divorced commits adultery.

In the new covenant, Jesus made it extremely clear divorce is not possible except sexual immorality. Any union of the woman after divorce which is not for sexual immorality will be treated as adultery.

  1. To divorce by a formal written document (Deut. 24:1)
  2. That one who divorced his wife shall not remarry her, if after the divorce she had been married to another man (Deut. 24:4)

Forbidden Sexual Relations (82 – 106) ✔

Lev 18:27-28 ‘(for all these abominations the men of the land have done, who were before you, and thus the land is defiled), lest the land vomit you out also when you defile it, as it vomited out the nations that were before you.

The below commandments are expected not just from Jews but also from gentiles of all nations. Hence, all the below laws are perfectly valid.

Matt 5:27-30 “You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ But I say to you that whoever looks at a woman to lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. If your right eye causes you to sin, pluck it out and cast it from you; for it is more profitable for you that one of your members perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and cast it from you; for it is more profitable for you that one of your members perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell.

Christ is against even the lust that begins in the heart and the punishment is same as adultery.

  1. Not to indulge in familiarities with relatives, such as kissing, embracing, winking, skipping, which may lead to incest (Lev. 18:6)
  2. Not to commit incest with one’s mother (Lev. 18:7)
  3. Not to commit sodomy with one’s father (Lev. 18:7)
  4. Not to commit incest with one’s father’s wife (Lev. 18:8)
  5. Not to commit incest with one’s sister (Lev. 18:9)
  6. Not to commit incest with one’s father’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:11)
  7. Not to commit incest with one’s son’s daughter (Lev. 18:10)
  8. Not to commit incest with one’s daughter’s daughter (Lev. 18:10)
  9. Not to commit incest with one’s daughter (this is not explicitly in the Torah but is inferred from other explicit commands that would include it)
  10. Not to commit incest with one’s fathers sister (Lev. 18:12)
  11. Not to commit incest with one’s mother’s sister (Lev. 18:13)
  12. Not to commit incest with one’s father’s brothers wife (Lev. 18:14)
  13. Not to commit sodomy with one’s father’s brother (Lev. 18:14)
  14. Not to commit incest with one’s son’s wife (Lev. 18:15)
  15. Not to commit incest with one’s brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16)
  16. Not to commit incest with one’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)
  17. Not to commit incest with the daughter of one’s wife’s son (Lev. 18:17)
  18. Not to commit incest with the daughter of one’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)
  19. Not to commit incest with one’s wife’s sister (Lev. 18:18)
  20. Not to have intercourse with a woman, in her menstrual period (Lev. 18:19)
  21. Not to have intercourse with another man’s wife (Lev. 18:20)
  22. Not to commit sodomy with a male (Lev. 18:22)
  23. Not to have intercourse with a beast (Lev. 18:23)
  24. That a woman shall not have intercourse with a beast (Lev. 18:23)
  25. Not to castrate the male of any species; neither a man, nor a domestic or wild beast, nor a fowl (Lev. 22:24)

Times and Seasons (107 – 142) ✔

Most of the below laws are very specific to Jews. Jesus said nothing that nullifies the requirement of Jews to follow them.

  1. That the new month shall be solemnly proclaimed as holy, and the months and years shall be calculated by the Supreme Court only (Ex. 12:2)(the authority to declare months is inferred from the use of the word “unto you”).
  2. Not to travel on Shabbat outside the limits of one’s place of residence (Ex. 16:29)
  3. To sanctify Shabbat (Ex. 20:8)
  4. Not to do work on Shabbat (Ex. 20:10)
  5. To rest on Shabbat (Ex. 23:12; 34:21)
  6. To celebrate the festivals [Passover, Shavu’ot and Sukkot] (Ex. 23:14)
  7. To rejoice on the festivals (Deut. 16:14)
  8. To appear in the Sanctuary on the festivals (Deut. 16:16)
  9. To remove chametz on the Eve of Passover (Ex. 12:15)
  10. To rest on the first day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:7)
  11. Not to do work on the first day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:6-7)
  12. To rest on the seventh day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:8)
  13. Not to do work on the seventh day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:8)
  14. To eat matzah on the first night of Passover (Ex. 12:18)
  15. That no chametz be in the Israelite’s possession during Passover (Ex. 12:19)
  16. Not to eat any food containing chametz on Passover (Ex. 12:20)
  17. Not to eat chametz on Passover (Ex. 13:3)
  18. That chametz shall not be seen in an Israelite’s home during Passover (Ex. 13:7)
  19. To discuss the departure from Egypt on the first night of Passover (Ex. 13:8)
  20. Not to eat chametz after mid-day on the fourteenth of Nissan (Deut. 16:3)
  21. To count forty-nine days from the time of the cutting of the Omer (first sheaves of the barley harvest) (Lev. 23:15)
  22. To rest on Shavu’ot (Lev. 23:21)
  23. Not to do work on the Shavu’ot (Lev. 23:21)
  24. To rest on Rosh Hashanah (Lev. 23:24)
  25. Not to do work on Rosh Hashanah (Lev. 23:25)
  26. To hear the sound of the shofar on Rosh Hashanah (Num. 29:1)
  27. To fast on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:27)
  28. Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:29)
  29. Not to do work on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:31)
  30. To rest on the Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:32)
  31. To rest on the first day of Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)
  32. Not to do work on the first day of Sukkot (Lev. 23:35)
  33. To rest on the eighth day of Sukkot (Shemini Atzeret) (Lev. 23:36)
  34. Not to do work on the eighth day of Sukkot (Shemini Atzeret) (Lev. 23:36)
  35. To take during Sukkot a palm branch and the other three plants (Lev. 23:40)
  36. To dwell in booths seven days during Sukkot (Lev. 23:42)

Dietary Laws (143 – 169) ✔

As we saw in ritual purity laws, Jesus made it very clear that the evil which comes out of the heart of a man defiles a person.

Mark 7:15-23 “There is nothing that enters a man from outside which can defile him; but the things which come out of him, those are the things that defile a man. “If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear!” When He had entered a house away from the crowd, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable. So He said to them, “Are you thus without understanding also? Do you not perceive that whatever enters a man from outside cannot defile him, because it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and is eliminated, thus purifying all foods? And He said, “What comes out of a man, that defiles a man. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lewdness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness. All these evil things come from within and defile a man.”

He is speaking to a Jewish audience and well aware of what defiles a person or makes him unclean and what are unclean food. Hence, in the new covenant, unclean food does not make a person unclean. However, it is also important to understand that the context Jesus was referring to is washing hands and not about eating unclean animals. Hence, it is safe to say, Jesus did not negate any dietary laws for the Jews nor approve them for gentiles who are not given the law.

Rev 2:14 “But I have a few things against you, because you have there those who hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality.

What Jesus said about eating any food cannot defile a person had been misused to eat things sacrificed to idols which Jesus clearly rejects.

  1. To examine the marks in cattle (so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean) (Lev. 11:2)
  2. Not to eat the flesh of unclean beasts (Lev. 11:4)
  3. To examine the marks in fishes (so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Lev. 11:9)
  4. Not to eat unclean fish (Lev. 11:11)
  5. To examine the marks in fowl, so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Deut. 14:11)
  6. Not to eat unclean fowl (Lev. 11:13)
  7. To examine the marks in locusts, so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Lev. 11:21)
  8. Not to eat a worm found in fruit (Lev. 11:41)
  9. Not to eat of things that creep upon the earth (Lev. 11:41-42)
  10. Not to eat any vermin of the earth (Lev. 11:44)
  11. Not to eat things that swarm in the water (Lev. 11:43 and 46)
  12. Not to eat of winged insects (Deut. 14:19)
  13. Not to eat the flesh of a beast that is terefah (lit torn) (Ex. 22:30)
  14. Not to eat the flesh of a beast that died of itself (Deut. 14:21)

Gen 9:4 “But you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood.

Lev. 7:26 Not to eat blood

Eating unclean things does not mean we can eat flesh with its blood. What Jesus is implying is about eating with unwashed hands or eating anything unclean that don’t defile a person. He is not nullifying the commandment of God given to all mankind through Noah.

Deut 22:6 If a bird’s nest happens to be before you along the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, with the mother sitting on the young or on the eggs, you shall not take the mother with the young;

Luke 14:5 Then He answered them, saying, “Which of you, having a donkey or an ox that has fallen into a pit, will not immediately pull him out on the Sabbath day?”

Jesus is also not implying in anyway to be merciless towards animals in the new covenant. In the new covenant, it is about the heart. Taking the mother with the young to eat and the food made with both mother and young bird is not what defiles, but the merciless act that begins at the heart defiles the person.

Below are the laws that are still valid.

  1. To slay cattle, deer and fowl according to the laws of shechitah if their flesh is to be eaten (Deut. 12:21)
  2. Not to eat a limb removed from a living beast (Deut. 12:23)
  3. Not to slaughter an animal and its young on the same day (Lev. 22:28)
  4. Not to take the mother-bird with the young (Deut. 22:6)
  5. To set the mother-bird free when taking the nest (Deut. 22:6-7)
  6. Not to eat the flesh of an ox that was condemned to be stoned (Ex. 21:28)
  7. Not to boil meat of the young in it’s mother’s milk (Ex. 23:19)
  8. Not to boil flesh of lamb in his mother’s milk (Ex. 34:26) (according to the Talmud, this passage is a distinct prohibition from the one in Ex. 23:19)
  9. Not to eat the of the thigh-vein which shrank (Gen. 32:33)
  10. Not to eat chelev (tallow-fat) (Lev. 7:23)
  11. Not to eat blood (Lev. 7:26)
  12. To cover the blood of undomesticated animals (deer, etc.) and of fowl that have been killed (Lev. 17:13)
  13. Not to eat or drink like a glutton or a drunkard (not to rebel against father or mother) (Lev. 19:26; Deut. 21:20)

Business Practices (170 – 183) ✔

Luke 19:8-10 Then Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, I give half of my goods to the poor; and if I have taken anything from anyone by false accusation, I restore fourfold.” And Jesus said to him, “Today salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham; for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

Jesus Christ affirmed these laws and He said nothing that makes any of the below laws invalid.

  1. Not to do wrong in buying or selling (Lev. 25:14)
  2. Not to make a loan to an Israelite on interest (Lev. 25:37)
  3. Not to borrow on interest (Deut. 23:20) (because this would cause the lender to sin)
  4. Not to take part in any usurious transaction between borrower and lender, neither as a surety, nor as a witness, nor as a writer of the bond for them (Ex. 22:24)
  5. To lend to a poor person (Ex. 22:24) (even though the passage says “if you lend” it is understood as obligatory)
  6. Not to demand from a poor man repayment of his debt, when the creditor knows that he cannot pay, nor press him (Ex. 22:24)
  7. Not to take in pledge utensils used in preparing food (Deut. 24:6)
  8. Not to exact a pledge from a debtor by force (Deut. 24:10)
  9. Not to keep the pledge from its owner at the time when he needs it (Deut. 24:12)
  10. To return a pledge to its owner (Deut. 24:13)
  11. Not to take a pledge from a widow (Deut. 24:17)
  12. Not to commit fraud in measuring (Lev. 19:35)
  13. To ensure that scales and weights are correct (Lev. 19:36)
  14. Not to possess inaccurate measures and weights (Deut. 25:13-14)

Kindness to Servants/Slaves (184 – 198, 200 – 202) ✔

Matt 20:25-28 But Jesus called them to Himself and said, “You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who are great exercise authority over them. Yet it shall not be so among you; but whoever desires to become great among you, let him be your servant. And whoever desires to be first among you, let him be your slave– just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”

The below laws are treatment of slaves / servants.

  1. Not to delay payment of a hired man’s wages (Lev. 19:13)
  2. That the hired laborer shall be permitted to eat of the produce he is reaping (Deut. 23:25-26)
  3. That the hired laborer shall not take more than he can eat (Deut. 23:25)
  4. That a hired laborer shall not eat produce that is not being harvested (Deut. 23:26)
  5. To pay wages to the hired man at the due time (Deut. 24:15)
  6. To deal judicially with the Hebrew bondman in accordance with the laws appertaining to him (Ex. 21:2-6)
  7. Not to compel the Hebrew servant to do the work of a slave (Lev. 25:39)
  8. Not to sell a Hebrew servant as a slave (Lev. 25:42)
  9. Not to treat a Hebrew servant rigorously (Lev. 25:43)
  10. Not to permit a gentile to treat harshly a Hebrew bondman sold to him (Lev. 25:53)
  11. Not to send away a Hebrew bondman servant empty handed, when he is freed from service (Deut. 15:13)
  12. To bestow liberal gifts upon the Hebrew bondsman (at the end of his term of service), and the same should be done to a Hebrew bondwoman (Deut. 15:14)
  13. To redeem a Hebrew maid-servant (Ex. 21:8)
  14. Not to sell a Hebrew maid-servant to another person (Ex. 21:8)
  15. To espouse a Hebrew maid-servant (Ex. 21:8-9)
  16. Not to surrender a slave, who has fled to the land of Israel, to his owner who lives outside Palestine (Deut. 23:16)
  17. Not to wrong such a slave (Deut. 23:17)
  18. Not to muzzle a beast, while it is working in produce which it can eat and enjoy (Deut. 25:4)

Perpetual Slavery of Canaanites (199) ✘

Matt 20:25-28 But Jesus called them to Himself and said, “You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those who are great exercise authority over them. Yet it shall not be so among you; but whoever desires to become great among you, let him be your servant. And whoever desires to be first among you, let him be your slave– just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”

Christ taught to be a servant/slave to serve others. This is contrary to keep a Canaanite slave forever. Hence, the below law is invalid.

  1. To keep the Canaanite slave forever (Lev. 25:46)

Vows, Oaths and Swearing (203 – 209) ✘

Matt 5:33-37 “Again you have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform your oaths to the Lord.’ But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Nor shall you swear by your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black. But let your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No,’ ‘No.’ For whatever is more than these is from the evil one.

As Jesus said, anything beyond ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ is from evil. Hence, in the new covenant, all laws related to vows, oaths and swearing are invalid.

  1. That a man should fulfill whatever he has uttered (Deut. 23:24)
  2. Not to swear needlessly (Ex. 20:7)
  3. Not to violate an oath or swear falsely (Lev. 19:12)
  4. To decide in cases of annulment of vows, according to the rules set forth in the Torah (Num. 30:2-17)
  5. Not to break a vow (Num. 30:3)
  6. To swear by His name truly (Deut. 10:20)
  7. Not to delay in fulfilling vows or bringing vowed or free-will offerings (Deut. 23:22)

Sabbatical and Jubilee Years (210 – 226) ✔

The sabbatical and jubilee years are specific to the land of Israel. Jesus said nothing that nullifies these laws. Hence, the below laws are perfectly valid for Jews.

  1. To let the land lie fallow in the Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:2)
  2. To cease from tilling the land in the Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:11)
  3. Not to till the ground in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:4)
  4. Not to do any work on the trees in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:4)
  5. Not to reap the aftermath that grows in the Sabbatical year, in the same way as it is reaped in other years (Lev. 25:5)
  6. Not to gather the fruit of the tree in the Sabbatical year in the same way as it is gathered in other years (Lev. 25:5)
  7. To sound the Ram’s horn in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:9)
  8. To release debts in the seventh year (Deut. 15:2)
  9. Not to demand return of a loan after the Sabbatical year has passed (Deut. 15:2)
  10. Not to refrain from making a loan to a poor man, because of the release of loans in the Sabbatical year (Deut. 15:9)
  11. To assemble the people to hear the Torah at the close of the seventh year (Deut. 31:12)
  12. To count the years of the Jubilee by years and by cycles of seven years (Lev. 25:8)
  13. To keep the Jubilee year holy by resting and letting the land lie fallow (Lev. 25:10)
  14. Not to cultivate the soil nor do any work on the trees, in the Jubilee Year (Lev. 25:11)
  15. Not to reap the aftermath of the field that grew of itself in the Jubilee Year, in the same way as in other years (Lev. 25:11)
  16. Not to gather the fruit of the tree in the Jubilee Year, in the same way as in other years (Lev. 25:11)
  17. To grant redemption to the land in the Jubilee year (Lev. 25:24)

Court and Judicial Procedure (227 – 262) ✘

Luke 6:37 Judge not, and you shall not be judged. Condemn not, and you shall not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven.

John 8:7 So when they continued asking Him, He raised Himself up and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first.”

Matt 18:21-22 Then Peter came to Him and said, “Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Up to seven times?” Jesus said to him, “I do not say to you, up to seven times, but up to seventy times seven.

Luke 12:58-59 “When you go with your adversary to the magistrate, make every effort along the way to settle with him, lest he drag you to the judge, the judge deliver you to the officer, and the officer throw you into prison. I tell you, you shall not depart from there till you have paid the very last mite.”

Jesus taught to forgive in the new covenant. He also taught to settle accounts before it goes to the judge. A judge is only required when there is disagreement and no forgiveness. Hence, forgiveness in the new covenant makes the below laws invalid.

  1. To appoint judges and officers in every community of Israel (Deut. 16:18)
  2. Not to appoint as a judge, a person who is not well versed in the laws of the Torah, even if he is expert in other branches of knowledge (Deut. 1:17)
  3. To adjudicate cases of purchase and sale (Lev. 25:14)
  4. To judge cases of liability of a paid depositary (Ex. 22:9)
  5. To adjudicate cases of loss for which a gratuitous borrower is liable (Ex. 22:13-14)
  6. To adjudicate cases of inheritances (Num. 27:8-11)
  7. To judge cases of damage caused by an uncovered pit (Ex. 21:33-34)
  8. To judge cases of injuries caused by beasts (Ex. 21:35-36)
  9. To adjudicate cases of damage caused by trespass of cattle (Ex. 22:4)
  10. To adjudicate cases of damage caused by fire (Ex. 22:5)
  11. To adjudicate cases of damage caused by a gratuitous depositary (Ex. 22:6-7)
  12. To adjudicate other cases between a plaintiff and a defendant (Ex. 22:8)
  13. Not to curse a judge (Ex. 22:27)
  14. That one who possesses evidence shall testify in Court (Lev. 5:1)
  15. Not to testify falsely (Ex. 20:13)
  16. That a witness, who has testified in a capital case, shall not lay down the law in that particular case (Num. 35:30)
  17. That a transgressor shall not testify (Ex. 23:1)
  18. That the court shall not accept the testimony of a close relative of the defendant in matters of capital punishment (Deut. 24:16)
  19. Not to hear one of the parties to a suit in the absence of the other party (Ex. 23:1)
  20. To examine witnesses thoroughly (Deut. 13:15)
  21. Not to decide a case on the evidence of a single witness (Deut. 19:15)
  22. To give the decision according to the majority, when there is a difference of opinion among the members of the Sanhedrin as to matters of law (Ex. 23:2)
  23. Not to decide, in capital cases, according to the view of the majority, when those who are for condemnation exceed by one only, those who are for acquittal (Ex. 23:2)
  24. That, in capital cases, one who had argued for acquittal, shall not later on argue for condemnation (Ex. 23:2)
  25. To treat parties in a litigation with equal impartiality (Lev. 19:15) (affirmative).
  26. Not to render iniquitous decisions (Lev. 19:15)
  27. Not to favor a great man when trying a case (Lev. 19:15)
  28. Not to take a bribe (Ex. 23:8)
  29. Not to be afraid of a bad man, when trying a case (Deut. 1:17)
  30. Not to be moved in trying a case, by the poverty of one of the parties (Ex. 23:3; Lev. 19:15)
  31. Not to pervert the judgment of strangers or orphans (Deut. 24:17)
  32. Not to pervert the judgment of a sinner (a person poor in fulfillment of commandments) (Ex. 23:6)
  33. Not to render a decision on one’s personal opinion, but only on the evidence of two witnesses, who saw what actually occurred (Ex. 23:7)
  34. Not to execute one guilty of a capital offense, before he has stood his trial (Num. 35:12)
  35. To accept the rulings of every Supreme Court in Israel (Deut. 17:11)
  36. Not to rebel against the orders of the Court (Deut. 17:11)

Avoid Accidents (263 – 264) ✔

Jesus said nothing that negates any of the laws that prevents accidental bloodshed or hurts. Hence, the law is perfectly valid.

  1. To make a parapet for your roof (Deut. 22:8)
  2. Not to leave something that might cause hurt (Deut. 22:8)

Injuries and Damages (265 – 266) ✘

Matt 5:38-42 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I tell you not to resist an evil person. But whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also. If anyone wants to sue you and take away your tunic, let him have your cloak also. And whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. Give to him who asks you, and from him who wants to borrow from you do not turn away.

Jesus taught the opposite of what the law says. Hence, the below laws are invalid.

  1. To save the pursued even at the cost of the life of the pursuer (Deut. 25:12)
  2. Not to spare a pursuer, but he is to be slain before he reaches the pursued and slays the latter, or uncovers his nakedness (Deut. 25:12)

Property and Property Rights (267 – 277) ✔

Luke 19:8-10 Then Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, I give half of my goods to the poor; and if I have taken anything from anyone by false accusation, I restore fourfold.”And Jesus said to him, “Today salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham;for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

As we see in the above story of Zacchaeus, the below laws are perfectly valid. Also, Jesus said nothing that changes the inheritance of Jews in their land.

  1. Not to sell a field in the land of Israel in perpetuity (Lev. 25:23)
  2. Not to change the character of the open land (about the cities of) the Levites or of their fields; not to sell it in perpetuity, but it may be redeemed at any time (Lev. 25:34)
  3. That houses sold within a walled city may be redeemed within a year (Lev. 25:29)
  4. Not to remove landmarks (property boundaries) (Deut. 19:14)
  5. Not to swear falsely in denial of another’s property rights (Lev. 19:11)
  6. Not to deny falsely another’s property rights (Lev. 19:11)
  7. Never to settle in the land of Egypt (Deut. 17:16)
  8. Not to steal personal property (Lev. 19:11)
  9. To restore that which one took by robbery (Lev. 5:23)
  10. To return lost property (Deut. 22:1)
  11. Not to pretend not to have seen lost property, to avoid the obligation to return it (Deut. 22:3)

Criminal Laws (278 – 284) ✔

Matt 5:21-24 “You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder, and whoever murders will be in danger of the judgment.’ But I say to you that whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment. And whoever says to his brother, ‘Raca!’ shall be in danger of the council. But whoever says, ‘You fool!’ shall be in danger of hell fire. Therefore if you bring your gift to the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift.

In the new covenant, Jesus Christ taught that even if desire comes from heart, it is punishable. Hence, the below law are perfectly valid.

  1. Not to slay an innocent person (Ex. 20:13)
  2. Not to kidnap any person of Israel (Ex. 20:13) (according to the Talmud, this verse refers to stealing a person, distinguished from Lev. 19:11, regarding the taking of property)
  3. Not to rob by violence (Lev. 19:13)
  4. Not to defraud (Lev. 19:13)
  5. Not to covet what belongs to another (Ex. 20:14)
  6. Not to crave something that belongs to another (Deut. 5:18)
  7. Not to indulge in evil thoughts and sights (Num. 15:39)

Punishment and Restitution (285 – 308) ✘

Luke 6:37 Judge not, and you shall not be judged. Condemn not, and you shall not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven.

John 8:7 So when they continued asking Him, He raised Himself up and said to them, “He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first.”

Matt 18:21-22 Then Peter came to Him and said, “Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Up to seven times?” Jesus said to him, “I do not say to you, up to seven times, but up to seventy times seven.

Luke 12:58-59 “When you go with your adversary to the magistrate, make every effort along the way to settle with him, lest he drag you to the judge, the judge deliver you to the officer, and the officer throw you into prison. I tell you, you shall not depart from there till you have paid the very last mite.”

As we saw in the Court and Judicial Procedure (227 – 262), Jesus taught to forgive in the new covenant and settle accounts before it goes to the judge. A judge is only required when there is disagreement and no forgiveness. Hence, forgiveness in the new covenant makes the below punishment laws invalid.

Matt 1:19 Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not wanting to make her a public example, was minded to put her away secretly.

It is also important to note, Joseph was called a just man for not punishing for the crime which he thinks of Mary before he was informed of the birth of Jesus in the dream.

  1. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by decapitation with the sword (Ex. 21:20; Lev. 26:25)
  2. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by strangulation (Lev. 20:10)
  3. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by burning with fire (Lev. 20:14)
  4. That the Court shall pass sentence of death by stoning (Deut. 22:24)
  5. To hang the dead body of one who has incurred that penalty (Deut. 21:22)
  6. That the dead body of an executed criminal shall not remain hanging on the tree over night (Deut. 21:23)
  7. To inter the executed on the day of execution (Deut. 21:23)
  8. Not to accept ransom from a murderer (Num. 35:31)
  9. To exile one who committed accidental homicide (Num. 35:25)
  10. To establish six cities of refuge (for those who committed accidental homicide) (Deut. 19:3)
  11. Not to accept ransom from an accidental homicide, so as to relieve him from exile (Num. 35:32)
  12. To decapitate the heifer in the manner prescribed (in expiation of a murder on the road, the perpetrator of which remained undiscovered) (Deut. 21:4)
  13. Not to plow nor sow the rough valley (in which a heifer’s neck was broken) (Deut. 21:4)
  14. To adjudge a thief to pay compensation or (in certain cases) suffer death (Ex. 21:16; Ex. 21:37; Ex. 22:1)
  15. That he who inflicts a bodily injury shall pay monetary compensation (Ex. 21:18-19)
  16. To impose a penalty of fifty shekels upon the seducer (of an unbetrothed virgin) and enforce the other rules in connection with the case (Ex. 22:15-16)
  17. That the violator (of an unbetrothed virgin) shall marry her (Deut. 22:28-29)
  18. That one who has raped a damsel and has then (in accordance with the law) married her, may not divorce her (Deut. 22:29)
  19. Not to inflict punishment on Shabbat (Ex. 35:3) (because some punishments were inflicted by fire)
  20. To punish the wicked by the infliction of stripes (Deut. 25:2)
  21. Not to exceed the statutory number of stripes laid on one who has incurred that punishment (Deut. 25:3) (and by implication, not to strike anyone)
  22. Not to spare the offender, in imposing the prescribed penalties on one who has caused damage (Deut. 19:13)
  23. To do unto false witnesses as they had purposed to do (to the accused) (Deut. 19:19)
  24. Not to punish any one who has committed an offense under duress (Deut. 22:26)

Prophecy (309 – 310) ✔

Matt 23:34 “Therefore, indeed, I send you prophets, wise men, and scribes: some of them you will kill and crucify, and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues and persecute from city to city

Matt 24:11 “Then many false prophets will rise up and deceive many.

Jesus did say that He will send prophets and they are not to prophesy falsely.

  1. To heed the call of every prophet in each generation, provided that he neither adds to, nor takes away from the Torah (Deut. 18:15)
  2. Not to prophesy falsely (Deut. 18:20)

Death to False Prophets (311) ✘

Matt 7:15-16 “Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves. You will know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes from thornbushes or figs from thistles?

Jesus did not ask anyone to put false prophets to death. However, He cautioned us to be careful.

  1. Not to refrain from putting a false prophet to death nor to be in fear of him (Deut. 18:22)

Idolatry, Idolaters and Idolatrous Practices (312 – 357) ✔

Rev 2:14 “But I have a few things against you, because you have there those who hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality.

Rev 2:20 “Nevertheless I have a few things against you, because you allow that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess, to teach and seduce My servants to commit sexual immorality and eat things sacrificed to idols.

Rev 21:8 “But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.”

As we read in Revelation, no idolater will enter life. Jesus also warned not to eat things sacrificed to idols. Hence, these laws are perfectly valid.

  1. Not to make a graven image; neither to make it oneself nor to have it made by others (Ex. 20:4)
  2. Not to make any figures for ornament, even if they are not worshipped (Ex. 20:20)
  3. Not to make idols even for others (Ex. 34:17; Lev. 19:4)
  4. Not to use the ornament of any object of idolatrous worship (Deut. 7:25)
  5. Not to make use of an idol or its accessory objects, offerings, or libations (Deut. 7:26)
  6. Not to drink wine of idolaters (Deut. 32:38)
  7. Not to worship an idol in the way in which it is usually worshipped (Ex. 20:5)
  8. Not to bow down to an idol, even if that is not its mode of worship (Ex. 20:5)
  9. Not to prophesy in the name of an idol (Ex. 23:13; Deut. 18:20)
  10. Not to hearken to one who prophesies in the name of an idol (Deut. 13:4)
  11. Not to lead the children of Israel astray to idolatry (Ex. 23:13)
  12. Not to entice an Israelite to idolatry (Deut. 13:12)
  13. To destroy idolatry and its appurtenances (Deut. 12:2-3)
  14. Not to love the enticer to idolatry (Deut. 13:9)
  15. Not to give up hating the enticer to idolatry (Deut. 13:9)
  16. Not to save the enticer from capital punishment, but to stand by at his execution (Deut. 13:9)
  17. A person whom he attempted to entice to idolatry shall not urge pleas for the acquittal of the enticer (Deut. 13:9)
  18. A person whom he attempted to entice shall not refrain from giving evidence of the enticer’s guilt, if he has such evidence (Deut. 13:9)
  19. Not to swear by an idol to its worshipers, nor cause them to swear by it (Ex. 23:13)
  20. Not to turn one’s attention to idolatry (Lev. 19:4)
  21. Not to adopt the institutions of idolaters nor their customs (Lev. 18:3; Lev. 20:23)
  22. Not to pass a child through the fire to Molech (Lev. 18:21)
  23. Not to suffer any one practicing witchcraft to live (Ex. 22:17)
  24. Not to practice onein (observing times or seasons as favorable or unfavorable, using astrology) (Lev. 19:26)
  25. Not to practice nachesh (doing things based on signs and portents; using charms and incantations) (Lev. 19:26)
  26. Not to consult ovoth (ghosts) (Lev. 19:31)
  27. Not to consult yid’onim (wizards) (Lev. 19:31)
  28. Not to practice kisuf (magic using herbs, stones and objects that people use) (Deut. 18:10)
  29. Not to practice kessem (a general term for magical practices) (Deut. 18:10)
  30. Not to practice the art of a chover chaver (casting spells over snakes and scorpions) (Deut. 18:11)
  31. Not to enquire of an ob (a ghost) (Deut. 18:11)
  32. Not to seek the maytim (dead) (Deut. 18:11)
  33. Not to enquire of a yid’oni (wizard) (Deut. 18:11)
  34. Not to remove the entire beard, like the idolaters (Lev. 19:27)
  35. Not to round the corners of the head, as the idolatrous priests do (Lev. 19:27)
  36. Not to cut oneself or make incisions in one’s flesh in grief, like the idolaters (Lev. 19:28; Deut. 14:1)
  37. Not to tattoo the body like the idolaters (Lev. 19:28)
  38. Not to make a bald spot for the dead (Deut. 14:1)
  39. Not to plant a tree for worship (Deut. 16:21)
  40. Not to set up a pillar (for worship) (Deut. 16:22)
  41. Not to show favor to idolaters (Deut. 7:2)
  42. Not to make a covenant with the seven (Canaanite, idolatrous) nations (Ex. 23:32; Deut. 7:2)
  43. Not to settle idolaters in our land (Ex. 23:33)
  44. To slay the inhabitants of a city that has become idolatrous and burn that city (Deut. 13:16-17)
  45. Not to rebuild a city that has been led astray to idolatry (Deut. 13:17)
  46. Not to make use of the property of city that has been so led astray (Deut. 13:18)

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (358 – 364) ✔

Jesus said nothing that negates any of the below laws.

Luke 13:6-9 He also spoke this parable: “A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. Then he said to the keeper of his vineyard, ‘Look, for three years I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree and find none. Cut it down; why does it use up the ground?’ But he answered and said to him, ‘Sir, let it alone this year also, until I dig around it and fertilize it. And if it bears fruit, well. But if not, after that you can cut it down.’ ”

However, it is interesting to note in one of His parables, He shows an important concept that contradicts the law. The man is not supposed to plant a fig tree in his vineyard (Mitzvot 362). He must not expect fruits from it for three years, yet he seeks for it (Mitzvot 360). The fig tree represents the gentiles who are planted in God’s vineyard and God expects fruits from them immediately.

  1. Not to cross-breed cattle of different species (Lev. 19:19) (according to the Talmud, this also applies to birds)
  2. Not to sow different kinds of seed together in one field (Lev. 19:19)
  3. Not to eat the fruit of a tree for three years from the time it was planted (Lev. 19:23)
  4. That the fruit of fruit-bearing trees in the fourth year of their planting shall be sacred like the second tithe and eaten in Jerusalem (Lev. 19:24)
  5. Not to sow grain or herbs in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)
  6. Not to eat the produce of diverse seeds sown in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9)
  7. Not to work with beasts of different species, yoked together (Deut. 22:10)

Clothing (365 – 366) ✔

Jesus said nothing that negates any of the below laws.

  1. That a man shall not wear women’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)
  2. That a woman should not wear men’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)

Mixing Wool and Linen (367) ✔

Isa 1:18 “Come now, and let us reason together,” Says the LORD, “Though your sins are like scarlet, They shall be as white as snow; Though they are red like crimson, They shall be as wool.

Rev 19:8 And to her it was granted to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and bright, for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints.

Wool represents our old sins that are washed. Linen represents righteous acts. It is possible the law was a reminder for the Jews to not bring in their old sins into their righteous acts. While there remains a spiritual explanation, Jesus said nothing that negates any of the below laws.

  1. Not to wear garments made of wool and linen mixed together (Deut. 22:11)

The Firstborn (368 – 371) ✘

Exod 13:15 ‘And it came to pass, when Pharaoh was stubborn about letting us go, that the LORD killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man and the firstborn of beast. Therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all males that open the womb, but all the firstborn of my sons I redeem.’

Redeeming requires sacrifice which requires the Temple or tabernacle. In the new covenant, Christ is the Temple (refer to temple section). Hence, the below laws are invalid.

  1. To redeem the firstborn human male (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20; Num. 18:15)
  2. To redeem the firstling of an ass (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20)
  3. To break the neck of the firstling of an ass if it is not redeemed (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20)
  4. Not to redeem the firstling of a clean beast (Num. 18:17)

Kohanim and Levites (372 – 401) ✘

Rev 1:6 and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

In the new covenant, there are no Kohanim  or Levites but His followers were made kings and priests to God.

  1. That the kohanim shall put on priestly vestments for the service (Ex. 28:2)
  2. Not to tear the High Kohein’s robe (Ex. 28:32)
  3. That the kohein shall not enter the Sanctuary at all times (i.e., at times when he is not performing service) (Lev. 16:2)
  4. That the ordinary kohein shall not defile himself by contact with any dead, other than immediate relatives (Lev. 21:1-3)
  5. That the kohanim defile themselves for their deceased relatives (by attending their burial), and mourn for them like other Israelites, who are commanded to mourn for their relatives (Lev. 21:3)
  6. That a kohein who had an immersion during the day (to cleanse him from his uncleanness) shall not serve in the Sanctuary until after sunset (Lev. 21:6)
  7. That a kohein shall not marry a divorced woman (Lev. 21:7)
  8. That a kohein shall not marry a harlot (Lev. 21:7)
  9. That a kohein shall not marry a profaned woman (Lev. 21:7)
  10. To show honor to a kohein, and to give him precedence in all things that are holy (Lev. 21:8)
  11. That a High Kohein shall not defile himself with any dead, even if they are relatives (Lev. 21:11)
  12. That a High Kohein shall not go (under the same roof) with a dead body (Lev. 21:11) It has been learnt by tradition that a kohein, who does so, violates the prohibition, “Neither shall he go in “, and also the prohibition “He shall not defile himself”
  13. That the High Kohein shall marry a virgin (Lev. 21:13)
  14. That the High Kohein shall not marry a widow (Lev. 21:14)
  15. That the High Kohein shall not cohabit with a widow, even without marriage, because he profanes her (Lev. 21:15)
  16. That a person with a physical blemish shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Lev. 21:17)
  17. That a kohein with a temporary blemish shall not serve there (Lev. 21:21)
  18. That a person with a physical blemish shall not enter the Sanctuary further than the altar (Lev. 21:23)
  19. That a kohein who is unclean shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Lev. 22:2-3)
  20. To send the unclean out of the Camp of the Shechinah, that is, out of the Sanctuary (Num. 5:2)
  21. That a kohein who is unclean shall not enter the courtyard (Num. 5:2-3) This refers to the Camp of the Shechinah
  22. That the kohanim shall bless Israel (Num. 6:23)
  23. To set apart a portion of the dough for the kohein (Num. 15:20)
  24. That the Levites shall not occupy themselves with the service that belongs to the kohanim, nor the kohanim with that belonging to the Levites (Num. 18:3)
  25. That one not a descendant of Aaron in the male line shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Num. 18:4-7)
  26. That the Levite shall serve in the Sanctuary (Num. 18:23)
  27. To give the Levites cities to dwell in, these to serve also as cities of refuge (Num. 35:2)
  28. That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any portion of territory in the land (of Israel) (Deut. 18:1)
  29. That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any share of the spoil (at the conquest of the Promised Land) (Deut. 18:1)
  30. That the kohanim shall serve in the Sanctuary in divisions, but on festivals, they all serve together (Deut. 18:6-8)

T’rumah, Tithes and Taxes (402 – 425) ✘

In the new covenant, there are no sacrifices for Christ is the Temple (refer Temple section), here are no Levites to give tithes (refer to Kohanim and Levites) and  no taxes to the Sanctuary for Christ is the Temple. Hence, the below laws are invalid in the new covenant.

  1. That an uncircumcised person shall not eat of the t’rumah (heave offering), and the same applies to other holy things. This rule is inferred from the law of the Paschal offering, by similarity of phrase (Ex. 12:44-45 and Lev. 22:10) but it is not explicitly set forth in the Torah. Traditionally, it has been learnt that the rule that the uncircumcised must not eat holy things is an essential principle of the Torah and not an enactment of the Scribes.
  2. Not to alter the order of separating the t’rumah and the tithes; the separation be in the order first-fruits at the beginning, then the t’rumah, then the first tithe, and last the second tithe (Ex. 22:28)
  3. To give half a shekel every year (to the Sanctuary for provision of the public sacrifices) (Ex. 30:13)
  4. That a kohein who is unclean shall not eat of the t’rumah (Lev. 22:3-4)
  5. That a person who is not a kohein or the wife or unmarried daughter of a kohein shall not eat of the t’rumah (Lev. 22:10)
  6. That a sojourner with a kohein or his hired servant shall not eat of the t’rumah (Lev. 22:10)
  7. Not to eat tevel (something from which the t’rumah and tithe have not yet been separated) (Lev. 22:15)
  8. To set apart the tithe of the produce (one tenth of the produce after taking out t’rumah) for the Levites (Lev. 27:30; Num. 18:24)
  9. To tithe cattle (Lev. 27:32)
  10. Not to sell the tithe of the herd (Lev. 27:32-33)
  11. That the Levites shall set apart a tenth of the tithes, which they had received from the Israelites, and give it to the kohanim (called the t’rumah of the tithe) (Num. 18:26)
  12. Not to eat the second tithe of cereals outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)
  13. Not to consume the second tithe of the vintage outside of Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)
  14. Not to consume the second tithe of the oil outside of Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)
  15. Not to forsake the Levites (Deut. 12:19); but their gifts (dues) should be given to them, so that they might rejoice therewith on each and every festival (negative)
  16. To set apart the second tithe in the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the sabbatical cycle to be eaten by its owner in Jerusalem (Deut. 14:22) (today, it is set aside but not eaten in Jerusalem).
  17. To set apart the second tithe in the third and sixth year of the sabbatical cycle for the poor (Deut. 14:28-29) (today, it must be separated out but need not be given to the poor).
  18. To give the kohein the due portions of the carcass of cattle (Deut. 18:3) (according to the Talmud, this is not mandatory in the present outside of Israel, but it is permissible, and some observant people do so)
  19. To give the first of the fleece to the kohein (Deut. 18:4) (according to the Talmud, this is not mandatory in the present outside of Israel, but it is permissible, and some observant people do so)
  20. To set apart t’rumah g’dolah (the great heave-offering, that is, a small portion of the grain, wine and oil) for the kohein (Deut. 18:4)
  21. Not to expend the proceeds of the second tithe on anything but food and drink (Deut. 26:14). Anything outside of things necessary for sustenance comes within the class in the phrase “Given for the dead”
  22. Not to eat the Second Tithe, even in Jerusalem, in a state of uncleanness, until the tithe had been redeemed (Deut. 26:14)
  23. Not to eat the Second Tithe, when mourning (Deut. 26:14)
  24. To make the declaration, when bringing the second tithe to the Sanctuary (Deut. 26:13)

The Temple, Sanctuary and Sacred Objects  (426-458) ✘

Matt 12:6 “Yet I say to you that in this place there is One greater than the temple.

John 2:19 Jesus answered and said to them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.”

John 4:21 Jesus said to her, “Woman, believe Me, the hour is coming when you will neither on this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, worship the Father.

The first thing Jesus changed is the Temple. In the old covenant, there is only one place where Jews are allowed to worship i.e., sacrifice and stand before the Lord (Deut 12:4-5) which is Jerusalem (1Kgs 9:3). Jesus becomes that Temple and we go to the Father through Jesus who is our Temple (John 14:6). In fact, He is greater than the Temple that was in Jerusalem. Hence, all the laws related with the earthly Temple or tabernacle, sacrifices, temple rituals in the law becomes invalid or not applicable in the new covenant. ‘Invalid’ doesn’t mean Jews (or Gentiles) are allowed to do the negative things in the law.

For e.g., If we say Mitzvot 426 is invalid, it doesn’t mean Jews (or gentiles) are allowed to build an altar of hewn stone. It simply means, there is no longer an altar for Christ is the Temple.

  1. Not to build an altar of hewn stone (Ex. 20:22)
  2. Not to mount the altar by steps (Ex. 20:23)
  3. To build the Sanctuary (Ex. 25:8)
  4. Not to remove the staves from the Ark (Ex. 25:15)
  5. To set the showbread and the frankincense before the L-rd every Shabbat (Ex. 25:30)
  6. To kindle lights in the Sanctuary (Ex. 27:21)
  7. That the breastplate shall not be loosened from the ephod (Ex. 28:28)
  8. To offer up incense twice daily (Ex. 30:7)
  9. Not to offer strange incense nor any sacrifice upon the golden altar (Ex. 30:9)
  10. That the kohein shall wash his hands and feet at the time of service (Ex. 30:19)
  11. To prepare the oil of anointment and anoint high kohanim and kings with it (Ex. 30:31)
  12. Not to compound oil for lay use after the formula of the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32-33)
  13. Not to anoint a stranger with the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)
  14. Not to compound anything after the formula of the incense (Ex. 30:37)
  15. That he who, in error, makes unlawful use of sacred things, shall make restitution of the value of his trespass and add a fifth (Lev. 5:16)
  16. To remove the ashes from the altar (Lev. 6:3)
  17. To keep fire always burning on the altar of the burnt-offering (Lev. 6:6)
  18. Not to extinguish the fire on the altar (Lev. 6:6)
  19. That a kohein shall not enter the Sanctuary with disheveled hair (Lev. 10:6)
  20. That a kohein shall not enter the Sanctuary with torn garments (Lev. 10:6)
  21. That the kohein shall not leave the Courtyard of the Sanctuary, during service (Lev. 10:7)
  22. That an intoxicated person shall not enter the Sanctuary nor give decisions in matters of the Law (Lev. 10:9-11)
  23. To revere the Sanctuary (Lev. 19:30) (today, this applies to synagogues)
  24. That when the Ark is carried, it should be carried on the shoulder (Num. 7:9)
  25. To observe the second Passover (Num. 9:11)
  26. To eat the flesh of the Paschal lamb on it, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs (Num. 9:11)
  27. Not to leave any flesh of the Paschal lamb brought on the second Passover until the morning (Num. 9:12)
  28. Not to break a bone of the Paschal lamb brought on the second Passover (Num. 9:12)
  29. To sound the trumpets at the offering of sacrifices and in times of trouble (Num. 10:9-10)
  30. To watch over the edifice continually (Num. 18:2)
  31. Not to allow the Sanctuary to remain unwatched (Num. 18:5)
  32. That an offering shall be brought by one who has in error committed a trespass against sacred things, or robbed, or lain carnally with a bond-maid betrothed to a man, or denied what was deposited with him and swore falsely to support his denial. This is called a guilt-offering for a known trespass.
  33. Not to destroy anything of the Sanctuary, of synagogues, or of houses of study, nor erase the holy names (of G-d); nor may sacred scriptures be destroyed (Deut. 12:2-4)

Sacrifices and Offerings (459 – 560) ✘

Ezek 16:62-63 And I will establish My covenant with you. Then you shall know that I am the LORD, that you may remember and be ashamed, and never open your mouth anymore because of your shame, when I provide you an atonement for all you have done,” says the Lord GOD.

John 1:29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!

When Christ became the Temple according to the New Covenant, He himself became the lamb of God, a perfect sacrifice for atonement of our sins as well. Hence, the laws associated with sacrifices and offerings becomes invalid.  As I had already mentioned, ‘Invalid’ doesn’t mean Jews (or Gentiles) are allowed to do the negative things in the law.

  1. To sanctify the firstling of clean cattle and offer it up (Ex. 13:2; Deut. 15:19)
  2. To slay the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:6)
  3. To eat the flesh of the Paschal sacrifice on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan (Ex. 12:8)
  4. Not to eat the flesh of the Paschal lamb raw or sodden (Ex. 12:9)
  5. Not to leave any portion of the flesh of the Paschal sacrifice until the morning unconsumed (Ex. 12:10)
  6. Not to give the flesh of the Paschal lamb to an Israelite who had become an apostate (Ex. 12:43)
  7. Not to give flesh of the Paschal lamb to a stranger who lives among you to eat (Ex. 12:45)
  8. Not to take any of the flesh of the Paschal lamb from the company’s place of assembly (Ex. 12:46)
  9. Not to break a bone of the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:46)
  10. That the uncircumcised shall not eat of the flesh of the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:48)
  11. Not to slaughter the Paschal lamb while there is chametz in the home (Ex. 23:18; Ex. 24:25)
  12. Not to leave the part of the Paschal lamb that should be burnt on the altar until the morning, when it will no longer be fit to be burnt (Ex. 23:18; Ex. 24:25)
  13. Not to go up to the Sanctuary for the festival without bringing an offering (Ex. 23:15)
  14. To bring the first fruits to the Sanctuary (Ex. 23:19)
  15. That the flesh of a sin-offering and guilt-offering shall be eaten (Ex. 29:33)
  16. That one not of the seed of Aaron, shall not eat the flesh of the holy sacrifices (Ex. 29:33)
  17. To observe the procedure of the burnt-offering (Lev. 1:3)
  18. To observe the procedure of the meal-offering (Lev. 2:1)
  19. Not to offer up leaven or honey (Lev. 2:11)
  20. That every sacrifice be salted (Lev. 2:13)
  21. Not to offer up any offering unsalted (Lev. 2:13)
  22. That the Court of Judgment shall offer up a sacrifice if they have erred in a judicial pronouncement (Lev. 4:13)
  23. That an individual shall bring a sin-offering if he has sinned in error by committing a transgression, the conscious violation of which is punished with excision (Lev. 4:27-28)
  24. To offer a sacrifice of varying value in accordance with one’s means (Lev. 5:7)
  25. Not to sever completely the head of a fowl brought as a sin-offering (Lev. 5:8)
  26. Not to put olive oil in a sin-offering made of flour (Lev. 5:11) (negative)
  27. Not to put frankincense on a sin-offering made of flour (Lev. 5:11) (negative)
  28. That an individual shall bring an offering if he is in doubt as to whether he has committed a sin for which one has to bring a sin-offering. This is called a guilt-offering for doubtful sins (Lev. 5:17-19)
  29. That the remainder of the meal offerings shall be eaten (Lev. 6:9)
  30. Not to allow the remainder of the meal offerings to become leavened (Lev. 6:10)
  31. That the High Kohein shall offer a meal offering daily (Lev. 6:13)
  32. Not to eat of the meal offering brought by the kohanim (Lev. 6:16)
  33. To observe the procedure of the sin-offering (Lev. 6:18)
  34. Not to eat of the flesh of sin offerings, the blood of which is brought within the Sanctuary and sprinkled towards the Veil (Lev. 6:23)
  35. To observe the procedure of the guilt-offering (Lev. 7:1)
  36. To observe the procedure of the peace-offering (Lev. 7:11)
  37. To burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has remained over (Lev. 7:17)
  38. Not to eat of sacrifices that are eaten beyond the appointed time for eating them (Lev. 7:18) The penalty is excision
  39. Not to eat of holy things that have become unclean (Lev. 7:19)
  40. To burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has become unclean (Lev. 7:19)
  41. That a person who is unclean shall not eat of things that are holy (Lev. 7:20)
  42. A kohein’s daughter who profaned herself shall not eat of the holy things, neither of the heave offering nor of the breast, nor of the shoulder of peace offerings (Lev. 10:14, Lev. 22:12)
  43. That a woman after childbirth shall bring an offering when she is clean (Lev. 12:6)
  44. That the leper shall bring a sacrifice after he is cleansed (Lev. 14:10)
  45. That a man having an issue shall bring a sacrifice after he is cleansed of his issue (Lev. 15:13-15)
  46. That a woman having an issue shall bring a sacrifice after she is cleansed of her issue (Lev. 15:28-30)
  47. To observe, on Yom Kippur, the service appointed for that day, regarding the sacrifice, confessions, sending away of the scapegoat, etc. (Lev. 16:3-34)
  48. Not to slaughter beasts set apart for sacrifices outside (the Sanctuary) (Lev. 17:3-4)
  49. Not to eat flesh of a sacrifice that has been left over (beyond the time appointed for its consumption) (Lev. 19:8 )
  50. Not to sanctify blemished cattle for sacrifice on the altar (Lev. 22:20) This text prohibits such beasts being set apart for sacrifice on the altar
  51. That every animal offered up shall be without blemish (Lev. 22:21)
  52. Not to inflict a blemish on cattle set apart for sacrifice (Lev. 22:21)
  53. Not to slaughter blemished cattle as sacrifices (Lev. 22:22)
  54. Not to burn the limbs of blemished cattle upon the altar (Lev. 22:22)
  55. Not to sprinkle the blood of blemished cattle upon the altar (Lev. 22:24)
  56. Not to offer up a blemished beast that comes from non-Israelites (Lev. 22:25)
  57. That sacrifices of cattle can only take place when they are at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27)
  58. Not to leave any flesh of the thanksgiving offering until the morning (Lev. 22:30)
  59. To offer up the meal-offering of the Omer on the morrow after the first day of Passover, together with one lamb (Lev. 23:10)
  60. Not to eat bread made of new grain before the Omer of barley has been offered up on the second day of Passover (Lev. 23:14)
  61. Not to eat roasted grain of the new produce before that time (Lev. 23:14)
  62. Not to eat fresh ears of the new grain before that time (Lev. 23:14)
  63. To bring on Shavu’ot loaves of bread together with the sacrifices which are then offered up in connection with the loaves (Lev. 23:17-20)
  64. To offer up an additional sacrifice on Passover (Lev. 23:36)
  65. That one who vows to the L-rd the monetary value of a person shall pay the amount appointed in the Scriptural portion (Lev. 27:2-8)
  66. If a beast is exchanged for one that had been set apart as an offering, both become sacred (Lev. 27:10)
  67. Not to exchange a beast set aside for sacrifice (Lev. 27:10)
  68. That one who vows to the L-rd the monetary value of an unclean beast shall pay its value (Lev. 27:11-13)
  69. That one who vows the value of his house shall pay according to the appraisal of the kohein (Lev. 27:11-13)
  70. That one who sanctifies to the L-rd a portion of his field shall pay according to the estimation appointed in the Scriptural portion (Lev. 27:16-24)
  71. Not to transfer a beast set apart for sacrifice from one class of sacrifices to another (Lev. 27:26)
  72. To decide in regard to dedicated property as to which is sacred to the Lord and which belongs to the kohein (Lev. 27:28)
  73. Not to sell a field devoted to the Lord (Lev. 27:28)
  74. Not to redeem a field devoted to the Lord (Lev. 27:28)
  75. To make confession before the L-rd of any sin that one has committed, when bringing a sacrifice and at other times (Num. 5:6-7)
  76. Not to put olive oil in the meal-offering of a woman suspected of adultery (Num. 5:15)
  77. Not to put frankincense on it (Num. 5:15)
  78. To offer up the regular sacrifices daily (two lambs as burnt offerings) (Num. 28:3)
  79. To offer up an additional sacrifice every Shabbat (two lambs) (Num. 28:9)
  80. To offer up an additional sacrifice every New Moon (Num. 28:11)
  81. To bring an additional offering on Shavu’ot (Num. 28:26-27)
  82. To offer up an additional sacrifice on Rosh Hashanah (Num. 29:1-6)
  83. To offer up an additional sacrifice on Yom Kippur (Num. 29:7-8)
  84. To offer up an additional sacrifice on Sukkot (Num. 29:12-34)
  85. To offer up an additional offering on Shemini Atzeret, which is a festival by itself (Num. 29:35-38)
  86. To bring all offerings, whether obligatory or freewill, on the first festival after these were incurred (Deut. 12:5-6)
  87. Not to offer up sacrifices outside (the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:13)
  88. To offer all sacrifices in the Sanctuary (Deut. 12:14)
  89. To redeem cattle set apart for sacrifices that contracted disqualifying blemishes, after which they may be eaten by anyone. (Deut. 12:15)
  90. Not to eat of the unblemished firstling outside Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17)
  91. Not to eat the flesh of the burnt-offering (Deut. 12:17). This is a Prohibition applying to every trespasser, not to enjoy any of the holy things. If he does so, he commits a trespass
  92. That the kohanim shall not eat the flesh of the sin-offering or guilt-offering outside the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:17)
  93. Not to eat of the flesh of the sacrifices that are holy in a minor degree, before the blood has been sprinkled (on the altar), (Deut. 12:17)
  94. That the kohein shall not eat the first-fruits before they are set down in the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:17)
  95. To take trouble to bring sacrifices to the Sanctuary from places outside the land of Israel (Deut. 12:26)
  96. Not to eat the flesh of beasts set apart as sacrifices, that have been rendered unfit to be offered up by deliberately inflicted blemish (Deut. 14:3)
  97. Not to do work with cattle set apart for sacrifice (Deut. 15:19)
  98. Not to shear beasts set apart for sacrifice (Deut. 15:19)
  99. Not to leave any portion of the festival offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan unto the third day (Deut. 16:4)
  100. Not to offer up a beast that has a temporary blemish (Deut. 17:1)
  101. Not to bring sacrifices out of the hire of a harlot or price of a dog (apparently a euphemism for sodomy) (Deut. 23:19)
  102. To read the portion prescribed on bringing the first fruits (Deut. 26:5-10)

Ritual Purity and Impurity (561 – 576) ✘

Mark 7:15-23 “There is nothing that enters a man from outside which can defile him; but the things which come out of him, those are the things that defile a man. “If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear!” When He had entered a house away from the crowd, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable. So He said to them, “Are you thus without understanding also? Do you not perceive that whatever enters a man from outside cannot defile him, because it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and is eliminated, thus purifying all foods? And He said, “What comes out of a man, that defiles a man. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lewdness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness. All these evil things come from within and defile a man.”

Jesus made it very clear that the evil which comes out of the heart of a man defiles a person. He is speaking to a Jewish audience and well aware of what defiles a person or makes him unclean.

Rev 2:14 “But I have a few things against you, because you have there those who hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality.

What Jesus said about eating any food cannot defile a person had been misused to eat things sacrificed to idols which Jesus clearly rejects.

  1. That eight species of creeping things defile by contact (Lev. 11:29-30)
  2. That foods become defiled by contact with unclean things (Lev. 11:34)
  3. That anyone who touches the carcass of a beast that died of itself shall be unclean (Lev. 11:39)
  4. That a lying-in woman is unclean like a menstruating woman (in terms of uncleanness) (Lev. 12:2-5)
  5. That a leper is unclean and defiles (Lev. 13:2-46)
  6. That the leper shall be universally recognized as such by the prescribed marks. So too, all other unclean persons should declare themselves as such (Lev. 13:45)
  7. That a leprous garment is unclean and defiles (Lev. 13:47-49)
  8. That a leprous house defiles (Lev. 14:34-46)
  9. That a man, having a running issue, defiles (Lev. 15:1-15)
  10. That the seed of copulation defiles (Lev. 15:16)
  11. That purification from all kinds of defilement shall be effected by immersion in the waters of a mikvah (Lev. 15:16)
  12. That a menstruating woman is unclean and defiles others (Lev. 15:19-24)
  13. That a woman, having a running issue, defiles (Lev. 15:25-27)
  14. To carry out the ordinance of the Red Heifer so that its ashes will always be available (Num. 19:9)
  15. That a corpse defiles (Num. 19:11-16)
  16. That the waters of separation defile one who is clean, and cleanse the unclean from pollution by a dead body (Num. 19:19-22)

Lepers and Leprosy (577 – 580) ✘

Leprosy laws require offerings (Lev 14:12) which can only happen in the Temple. Hence, in the new covenant, there are no leprosy laws.

  1. Not to drove off the hair of the scall (Lev. 13:33)
  2. That the procedure of cleansing leprosy, whether of a man or of a house, takes place with cedar-wood, hyssop, scarlet thread, two birds, and running water (Lev. 14:1-7)
  3. That the leper shall shave all his hair (Lev. 14:9)
  4. Not to pluck out the marks of leprosy (Deut. 24:8)

The King (581 – 587) ✘

Mark 15:2 Then Pilate asked Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” He answered and said to him, “It is as you say.”

Isa 9:6-7 For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, To order it and establish it with judgment and justice From that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.

In the new covenant, Jesus Christ is the only King of Israel. Hence, any of the laws related to the kings are invalid under new covenant. When I say ‘Invalid’, it doesn’t mean Jews (or Gentiles) are allowed to do certain things in the law.

For e.g., If we say Mitzvot 581 and 582 are invalid, it doesn’t mean Jews (or gentiles) are allowed to curse (blaspheme the Lord) or appoint their own king rejecting Christ as their King (which the Jews did by crucifying Him). It simply means, we have one King of the Jews, Jesus Christ who is God Himself in flesh.

  1. Not to curse a ruler, that is, the King or the head of the College in the land of Israel (Ex. 22:27)
  2. To appoint a king (Deut. 17:15)
  3. Not to appoint as ruler over Israel, one who comes from non-Israelites (Deut. 17:15)
  4. That the King shall not acquire an excessive number of horses (Deut. 17:16)
  5. That the King shall not take an excessive number of wives (Deut. 17:17)
  6. That he shall not accumulate an excessive quantity of gold and silver (Deut. 17:17)
  7. That the King shall write a scroll of the Torah for himself, in addition to the one that every person should write, so that he writes two scrolls (Deut. 17:18)

Nazarites (588 – 597) ✘

In the new covenant, there cannot be any Nazarites because it requires offerings (Num 6:2,11,16) which can only happen in the Temple.

Matt 5:33-37 “Again you have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform your oaths to the Lord.’ But I say to you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Nor shall you swear by your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black. But let your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No,’ ‘No.’ For whatever is more than these is from the evil one.

With Christ is the Temple, and He invalidates making any vows, there cannot be any Nazarites in the new covenant. Hence, all Nazarite laws are invalid.

  1. That a Nazarite shall not drink wine, or anything mixed with wine which tastes like wine; and even if the wine or the mixture has turned sour, it is prohibited to him (Num. 6:3)
  2. That he shall not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3)
  3. That he shall not eat dried grapes (raisins) (Num. 6:3)
  4. That he shall not eat the kernels of the grapes (Num. 6:4)
  5. That he shall not eat of the skins of the grapes (Num. 6:4)
  6. That the Nazarite shall permit his hair to grow (Num. 6:5)
  7. That the Nazarite shall not cut his hair (Num. 6:5)
  8. That he shall not enter any covered structure where there is a dead body (Num. 6:6)
  9. That a Nazarite shall not defile himself for any dead person (by being in the presence of the corpse) (Num. 6:7)
  10. That the Nazarite shall shave his hair when he brings his offerings at the completion of the period of his Nazariteship, or within that period if he has become defiled (Num. 6:9)

Wars (598 – 613) ✘

Matt 5:43-45 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust.

Matt 26:52 But Jesus said to him, “Put your sword in its place, for all who take the sword will perish by the sword.

Matt 24:9 “Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and kill you, and you will be hated by all nations for My name’s sake.

Jesus is against wars. He did not permit anyone to take swords or make wars. He even said, the followers of Jesus will be killed and hated by all nations for His name’s sake. Hence, all laws related to wars are invalid.

  1. That those engaged in warfare shall not fear their enemies nor be panic-stricken by them during battle (Deut. 3:22, 7:21, 20:3)
  2. To anoint a special kohein (to speak to the soldiers) in a war (Deut. 20:2)
  3. In a permissive war (as distinguished from obligatory ones), to observe the procedure prescribed in the Torah (Deut. 20:10)
  4. Not to keep alive any individual of the seven Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:16)
  5. To exterminate the seven Canaanite nations from the land of Israel (Deut. 20:17)
  6. Not to destroy fruit trees (wantonly or in warfare) (Deut. 20:19-20)
  7. To deal with a beautiful woman taken captive in war in the manner prescribed in the Torah (Deut. 21:10-14)
  8. Not to sell a beautiful woman, (taken captive in war) (Deut. 21:14) (negative).
  9. Not to degrade a beautiful woman (taken captive in war) to the condition of a bondwoman (Deut. 21:14)
  10. Not to offer peace to the Ammonites and the Moabites before waging war on them, as should be done to other nations (Deut. 23:7)
  11. That anyone who is unclean shall not enter the Camp of the Levites (Deut. 23:11) (according to the Talmud, in the present day this means the Temple mount)
  12. To have a place outside the camp for sanitary purposes (Deut. 23:13)
  13. To keep that place sanitary (Deut. 23:14-15)
  14. Always to remember what Amalek did (Deut. 25:17)
  15. That the evil done to us by Amalek shall not be forgotten (Deut. 25:19)
  16. To destroy the seed of Amalek (Deut. 25:19)

614th Mitzvot: Jesus Christ, the Messiah

Deut 18:18-19 ‘I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and will put My words in His mouth, and He shall speak to them all that I command Him. And it shall be that whoever will not hear My words, which He speaks in My name, I will require it of him.

John 5:46 “For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me.

While the Jewish leaders took great effort to categorize the law into 613 Mitzvots, yet they missed one important law that commands the Jews to listen whatever Jesus Christ says. This is so crucial, that whoever does not listen to what God the Father speaks through His Son Jesus Christ, He will require it of them.

Quick Summary of Laws under New Covenant

The gentiles where never under the law but the Jews were given the law. If the Jews are to keep the law, what laws are valid and what laws becomes invalid under the New Covenant?

It is important to note that the laws themselves are not invalid or become invalidated. However, under the New Covenant, certain laws are fulfilled by Jesus Christ.

  • Christ is God in flesh (John 10:30)
  • Christ becomes the Temple (Matt 12:6; John 2:20-21)
  • Christ is our High Priest (Ps 110:4)
  • Christ is the King of the Jews (Mark 15:2)
  • Christ is the lamb of God (John 1:29)
  • Christ is the perfect sacrifice (Ezek 16:62-63)
  • Christ’s words supersedes the Torah (Deu 18:18-19)

These fulfillment of the law creates significant changes to the old covenant. As Jesus said, the law does not pass away until the heaven and earth. Hence, it is important for us to understand what gets fulfilled and what remains.

  • God (1 – 10) ✔
  • Torah (11 – 16) ✔
  • Signs and Symbols (17 – 21) ✔
  • Prayer and Blessings (22 – 25) ✔
  • Love and Brotherhood (26 – 39) ✔
  • The Poor and Unfortunate (40 – 52) ✔
  • Treatment of Gentiles (53 – 58) ✔
  • Marriage and Family (59 – 76, 79 – 81) ✔
  • Divorce (77,78) ✘, (divorce except sexual immorality is adultery)
  • Forbidden Sexual Relations (82 – 106) ✔
  • Times and Seasons (107 – 142) ✔
  • Dietary Laws (143 – 169) ✔
  • Business Practices (170 – 183) ✔
  • Kindness to Servants/Slaves (184 – 198, 200 – 202) ✔
  • Perpetual Slavery of Canaanites (199) ✘, (Contrary to Jesus teachings of forgiveness and kindness even to enemies)
  • Vows, Oaths and Swearing (203 – 209) ✘, (Contrary to Jesus teachings of not to swear or oath)
  • Sabbatical and Jubilee Years (210 – 226) ✔
  • Court and Judicial Procedure (227 – 262) ✘, (Contrary to Jesus teachings on not to judge and forgiveness)
  • Injuries and Damages (265 – 266) ✘, (Contrary to Jesus teachings on forgiveness)
  • Property and Property Rights (267 – 277) ✔
  • Criminal Laws (278 – 284) ✔
  • Punishment and Restitution (285 – 308) ✘, (Contrary to Jesus teachings on forgiveness)
  • Prophecy (309 – 310) ✔
  • Death to False Prophets (311) ✘, (Jesus taught to cautious of false prophets and not to kill them. Nor did he anywhere acknowledged killing of anyone)
  • Idolatry, Idolaters and Idolatrous Practices (312 – 357) ✔
  • Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (358 – 364) ✔
  • Clothing (365 – 366) ✔
  • Mixing Wool and Linen (367) ✔
  • The Firstborn (368 – 371) ✘, (Christ is the Temple and the ritual laws that require an earthly Temple/tabernacle becomes invalid)
  • T’rumah, Tithes and Taxes (402 – 425) ✘, (Christ is the Temple and the ritual laws that require an earthly Temple/tabernacle becomes invalid)
  • The Temple, Sanctuary and Sacred Objects (426-458) ✘, (Christ is the Temple and the ritual laws that require an earthly Temple/tabernacle becomes invalid)
  • Sacrifices and Offerings (459 – 560) ✘, (Christ is the Temple and the ritual laws that require an earthly Temple becomes invalid)
  • Ritual Purity and Impurity (561 – 576) ✘, (Christ is the Temple and the ritual laws that require an earthly Temple/tabernacle becomes invalid)
  • Lepers and Leprosy (577 – 580) ✘, (Christ is the Temple and the ritual laws that require an earthly Temple/tabernacle becomes invalid)
  • The King (581 – 587) ✘, (Christ in the King of the Jews)
  • Nazarites (588 – 597) ✘, (Christ is the Temple and the ritual laws that require an earthly Temple/tabernacle becomes invalid)
  • Wars (598 – 613) ✘, (Contrary to Jesus teachings on non-violence)
  • Jesus Christ, the Messiah (614) ✔